Hazard Simplification Translation Guide


How Our Software Converts WWA to Plain English

This guide offers examples of how watches, warning and advisories will be translated during this non-official demonstration. While not an exhaustive list of all possible combinations of watches, warnings or advisories, these examples provide the framework for how translations will occur. If you have questions about the translation guide, email hazsimp@noaa.gov

  1. Watch Translation
  2. Warning Translation
  3. Advisory Translation
  4. Cancellations/Expirations
  5. Replacing a Warning with an Advisory
  6. Replacing a Warning with a Warning
  7. Generic Hazard Text for Winter Storm Warnings
  8. Generic Hazard Text for Winter Weather Advisories

1. Watch Translation

Using Winter Storm Watch as an Example

Category 1: When any of the following cases apply:

  • A new Watch is issued
  • An existing Watch is expanded in area, expanded in time or both
  • The Watch is corrected from a previous issuance

The current official hazard message is as follows:

...WINTER STORM WATCH IN EFFECT FROM (time1) THROUGH (time2)...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WINTER STORM WATCH... WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) THROUGH (time2).

which will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) IS FORECASTING THE POTENTIAL FOR A SIGNIFICANT WINTER STORM FROM (time1) THROUGH (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action codes NEW, EXA, EXB, EXT, or COR.


Category 2: When the following case applies:

A Watch is continued

The current official hazard message is:

...WINTER STORM WATCH REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) THROUGH (time2)...

A WINTER STORM WATCH REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) THROUGH (time2).

which will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) CONTINUES TO FORECAST THE POTENTIAL FOR A SIGNIFICANT WINTER STORM FROM (time1) THROUGH (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action code CON.


Category 3: If a Warning or Advisory is in effect at the same time as a Watch, the Watch will be in the second sentence. When the following cases apply:

  • A new Watch is issued
  • An existing Watch is expanded in area, expanded in time or both
  • The Watch is corrected from a previous issuance
The current official hazard message is:

...WINTER STORM WATCH IN EFFECT FROM (time1) THROUGH (time2)...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WINTER STORM WATCH... WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) THROUGH (time2).

which will be translated as follows as the second sentence:

THERE IS ALSO THE POTENTIAL FOR A SIGNIFICANT WINTER STORM FROM (time1) THROUGH (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action codes NEW, EXA, EXB, EXT, or COR.


Category 4: If a Warning or Advisory is in effect at the same time as a Watch, the Watch will be in the second sentence. When the following case applies:

A Watch is continued

The current official hazard message is:

...WINTER STORM WATCH REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) THROUGH (time2)...

A WINTER STORM WATCH REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) THROUGH (time2).

which will be translated to as follows for the second sentence:

ALSO...THE POTENTIAL FOR A SIGNIFICANT WINTER STORM CONTINUES FROM (time1) THROUGH (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action code CON.


2. Warning Translation

Using Winter Storm Warning for snow as an example

Category 1: When any of the following cases apply:

  • A new Warning is issued
  • An existing Warning is expanded in area, expanded in time or both
  • The Warning is corrected from a previous issuance

The current official hazard message is:

...WINTER STORM WARNING IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2)...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WINTER STORM WARNING FOR SNOW... WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2).

which will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WARNING FOR A DANGEROUS SNOW STORM FROM (time1) TO (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action codes NEW, EXA, EXB, EXT, or COR.


Category 2: When the following case applies:

A Warning is continued

The current official hazard message is:

...
WINTER STORM WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2)...

A WINTER STORM WARNING FOR SNOW REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2).

which will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) CONTINUES THE WARNING FOR A DANGEROUS SNOW STORM FROM (time1) TO (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action code CON.


Category 3: When the following case applies:

A Winter Storm Watch or Winter Weather Advisory is upgraded to a Warning

The current official hazard message is:

...
WINTER STORM WARNING IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2)...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WINTER STORM WARNING FOR SNOW...WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2).

which will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS NOW ISSUED A WARNING FOR A DANGEROUS SNOW STORM FROM (time1) TO (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action code UPG followed by NEW, EXA, EXB, EXT, CON, or COR.


Category 4: If more than one Warning is in effect, the Warning with the later expiration time will be in the second sentence. Then, when the following cases apply for the Warning with the later expiration time:

  • a) A new Warning is issued
  • An existing Warning is expanded in area, expanded in time or both
  • The Warning is corrected from a previous issuance
The current official hazard message is:

...WINTER STORM WARNING IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2)...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WINTER STORM WARNING FOR SNOW WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2).

which will be translated as follows for the Warning in the second sentence:

THERE IS ALSO A WARNING FOR A DANGEROUS SNOW STORM FROM (time1) TO (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action codes NEW, EXA, EXB, EXT, or COR.


Category 5: If more than one Warning is in effect, the Warning with the later expiration time will be in the second sentence. Then, when the following case applies for the Warning with the later expiration time:

Warning is continued

The current official hazard message is:

...
WINTER STORM WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2)...

A WINTER STORM WARNING FOR SNOW REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2).

which will be translated as follows for the Warning in the second sentence:

ALSO...A WARNING FOR A DANGEROUS SNOW STORM CONTINUES FROM (time1) TO (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action code CON.


3. Advisory Translation

Using Winter Weather Advisory for freezing drizzle as an example

Category 1: When any of the following cases apply:

  • A new Advisory is issued
  • An existing Advisory is expanded in area, expanded in time or both
  • The Advisory is corrected from a previous issuance
The current official hazard message is:

...WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2)...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY FOR FREEZING DRIZZLE...WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2).

which will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) ADVISES CAUTION FOR FREEZING DRIZZLE FROM (time1) TO (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action codes NEW, EXA, EXB, EXT, or COR.


Category 2: When the following case applies:

An Advisory is continued

The current official hazard message is:

...
WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL (time2)...

A WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY FOR FREEZING DRIZZLE REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL (time2).


which will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) CONTINUES TO ADVISE CAUTION FOR FREEZING DRIZZLE UNTIL (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action code CON.


Category 3: If one or more Advisories and/or Warnings are in effect, this category of translation applies for any of the following circumstances:

A Winter Storm Watch is upgraded to an Advisory

The current official hazard message is:

...
WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2)...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY FOR FREEZING DRIZZLE...WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2).

which will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) NOW ADVISES CAUTION FOR FREEZING DRIZZLE FROM (time1) TO (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action code UPG followed by NEW, EXA, EXB, EXT, CON, or COR.


Category 4: If a Warning is in effect at the same time as an Advisory, the Advisory will be in the second sentence. Or, if two Advisories are in effect, the Advisory with the later expiration time will be in the second sentence. Then, when the following cases apply:

  • A new Advisory is issued
  • An existing Advisory is expanded in area, expanded in time or both
  • The Advisory is corrected from a previous issuance
The current official hazard message is:

...WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2)...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY FOR FREEZING DRIZZLE WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2).

which will be translated as follows for the Advisory in the second sentence:

CAUTION IS ALSO ADVISED FOR FREEZING DRIZZLE FROM (time1) TO (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action codes NEW, EXA, EXB, EXT, or COR.


Category 5: If a Warning is in effect at the same time as an Advisory, the Advisory will be in the second sentence. Or, if two Advisories are in effect, the Advisory with the later expiration time will be in the second sentence. Then, when the following cases apply:

An Advisory is continued

The current official hazard message is:

...
WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2)...

A WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY FOR FREEZING DRIZZLE REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2).

which will be translated as follows for the Advisory in the second sentence:

ALSO...CAUTION FOR FREEZING DRIZZLE CONTINUES TO BE ADVISED FROM (time1) TO (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action code CON.


Category 6: If a Warning is in effect at the same time as an Advisory, the Advisory will be in the second sentence. Or, if two Advisories are in effect, the advisory with the later expiration time will be in the second sentence. Then, when the following cases apply:

A Winter Storm Watch is upgraded to an Advisory

The current official hazard message is:

...
WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2)...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY FOR FREEZING DRIZZLE...WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2).

which will be translated follows for the Advisory in the second sentence:

CAUTION IS ALSO NOW ADVISED FOR FREEZING DRIZZLE FROM (time1) TO (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action code UPG followed by NEW, EXA, EXB, EXT, CON, or COR.


4. Cancellations/Expiration

Category 1: When any of the following are canceled or expired:

  • Winter Storm Warning or Watch
  • Winter Weather Advisory
  • Freezing Rain Advisory
  • Ice Storm Warning
  • Blizzard Warning or Watch
  • Lake Effect Snow Warning, Advisory or Watch
The current official hazard message for cancellation is:

...WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY IS CANCELLED...

and the current official hazard message for expiration is:

…WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY HAS EXPIRED…

or

…WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY WILL EXPIRE AT (time)…

Any of these will be translated to:

PRECIPITATION HAZARDS NO LONGER PRESENT A SIGNIFICANT THREAT.

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies only to the hazard messages (a-f) in this category using VTEC action codes CAN or EXP.


Category 2: When any of the following are canceled or expire:

  • Wind Chill Warning, Advisory or Watch
  • Extreme Cold Warning
The current official hazard message for cancellation is:

…WIND CHILL ADVISORY IS CANCELLED…

and the current official hazard message for expiration is:

…WIND CHILL ADVISORY HAS EXPIRED…

or

…WIND CHILL ADVISORY WILL EXPIRE AT (time)…

Any of these will be translated to:

THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF WIND AND COLD NO LONGER PRESENT A SIGNIFICANT HAZARD.

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies only to the hazard messages (a-b) in this category using VTEC action codes CAN or EXP.


5. Replacing a Warning with an Advisory

Category 1: If a Winter Storm Warning, Ice Storm Warning, Blizzard Warning, or

Lake Effect Snow Warning is being replaced by a Winter Weather Advisory, Freezing Rain Advisory or Lake Effect Snow Advisory, then the current official hazard message is:

...WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY IN EFFECT UNTIL (time2)...

...WINTER STORM WARNING IS CANCELLED...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY FOR SNOW...WHICH IS IN EFFECT UNTIL (time2). THE WINTER STORM WARNING HAS BEEN CANCELLED.

which will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) ADVISES CAUTION FOR SNOW UNTIL (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action code CAN or EXP followed by NEW, EXA, EXB, EXT, CON, or COR.

Special cases: When the phenomenon and significance are the same (e.g. WW.Y)


Category 2: If a Wind Chill Warning is being replaced by a Wind Chill Advisory, then the current official hazard message is:

...WIND CHILL ADVISORY IN EFFECT UNTIL (time2)...

...WIND CHILL WARNING IS CANCELLED...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WIND CHILL ADVISORY...WHICH IS IN EFFECT UNTIL (time2). THE WIND CHILL WARNING HAS BEEN CANCELLED.

which will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) ADVISES CAUTION FOR VERY COLD AND WINDY CONDITIONS UNTIL (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action code CAN or EXP followed by NEW, EXA, EXB, EXT, CON, or COR.


6. Replacing a Warning with a Warning

Using Winter Storm Warning to Blizzard Warning

If a Winter Storm Warning, Ice Storm Warning, Blizzard Warning or Lake Effect Snow Warning is being replaced by another warning, then the current official hazard message is

...BLIZZARD WARNING IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2)...

...WINTER STORM WARNING IS CANCELLED...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A BLIZZARD WARNING...WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM (time1) TO (time2)...

which will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WARNING FOR BLIZZARD CONDITIONS UNTIL (time2).

Technical Headline Coding Information for Partners:
This case applies to VTEC using action code CAN or EXP followed by NEW, EXA, EXB, EXT, CON, or COR.


7. Generic Hazard Text for Winter Storm Warnings

Category 1: If the current official hazard message for a Winter Storm Warning contains a NWS attribution line, but no hazard type (e.g. snow; freezing rain and snow, etc) is specified,

the generic hazard text “DANGEROUS WINTER STORM” will be used. If the current official hazard message is:

...WINTER STORM WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL (time2)

...A WINTER STORM WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL (time2).

This will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) CONTINUES A WARNING FOR A DANGEROUS WINTER STORM UNTIL (time2).


Category 2: If the current official hazard message for a Winter Storm Warning does not contain a NWS attribution line, the generic hazard text “DANGEROUS WINTER STORM” will be used. If the current official hazard message is:

...
WINTER STORM WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL (time2)...

[no NWS attribution line specifying hazard type]

This will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) CONTINUES A WARNING FOR A DANGEROUS SNOW STORM UNTIL (time2).


8. Generic Hazard Text for Winter Weather Advisories

Category 1: If the current official hazard message for a Winter Weather Advisory contains a NWS attribution line, but no hazard type (e.g. snow; freezing rain and snow, etc) is specified,

the generic hazard text “HAZARDOUS WINTER WEATHER” will be used. If the current official hazard message is:

WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY IN EFFECT UNTIL (time2)...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) HAS ISSUED A WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY...WHICH IS IN EFFECT UNTIL (time2).

This will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) ADVISES CAUTION FOR HAZARDOUS WINTER WEATHERUNTIL (time2).


Category 2: If the current official hazard message for a Winter Weather Advisory does not contain a NWS attribution line, the generic hazard text “HAZARDOUS WINTER WEATHER” will be used. If the current official hazard message is:

...
WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL (time2)...

[no NWS attribution line specifying hazard type]

This will be translated to:

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN (place) CONTINUES TO ADVISE CAUTION FOR HAZARDOUS WINTER WEATHERUNTIL (time2).